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Compliments radar

Min temperature

Anvil growth

Storm top dynamics

Equilibrium temp

Phase change


Anvil-induced boundaries

Storm morphology

Future hypotheses

Observing phase changes and 3.9µm reflectivity patterns on severe storm tops. 


First, observing phase changes (glaciation)

Observing the glaciation of convective cloud tops is possible using the reflectivity or fog products. 

The work is just starting on comparing cloudtop glaciation to that of first 88-D observed echo. 

A case study of a weakly convective mid-level cloud glaciating also compared to that of the KFWS 88-D showed that precipitation sized particles formed within the interior of the cloud before signs of glaciation occurred in the 3.9µm reflectivity product. Below is a loop of the glaciating cloud in ch2 reflectance, ch 1, ch4 and the KFWS composite reflectivity.


6-fig1loop.gif - 318.3 K 

You can access this study here.


Work is continuing on strong convective days with 1-min satellite data to see if there is improved leadtime from cloud glaciation to onset of significant precipitation and lightning.

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